is a chronic respiratory condition most often caused by the destruction of lung tissue by toxins contained in
cigarette smoke. This, in turn, leads to chronic overinflation of the lungs, greatly decreasing their ability to function.
chronic bronchitis, emphysema is a
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
that evolves over a period of time. Emphysema results in destruction of the alveoli, the tiny air sacs in the lungs. Oxygen is delivered to the lungs and carbon dioxide is carried from the lungs across the walls of the alveoli. As more and more alveoli are damaged, it becomes harder and harder for the lungs to function, which can cause these symptoms:
Shortness of breath
Increasing difficulty exercising
Great difficulty exhaling
Cough with mucus production
As the disease progresses, breathing becomes increasingly difficult. In its most severe stage, virtually any physical activity becomes extremely difficult, if not impossible.
When a person complains of the chronic presence of the symptoms of emphysema, a physical exam and various
lung function tests
(spirometry) are done to confirm the diagnosis.
may also be done.
Since, at present, emphysema cannot be cured, the goals of treatment are to:
To slow emphysema's progression, the agent causing it must be removed. Since long-term smoking causes an overwhelming number of cases of emphysema, the only effective way to slow the progression of emphysema is to
There are many smoking cessation therapies available. Your doctor may also be able to prescribe a medication that may help you stop smoking.
COPD. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Updated July 15, 2014. Accessed July 24, 2014.
Explore COPD. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Updated July 31, 2013. Accessed July 24, 2014.
Tutic M, Lardinois D, Imfeld S, Korom S, Boehler A, Speich R, et al. Lung-volume reduction surgery as an alternative or bridging procedure to lung transplantation.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Jul;82(1):208-13.
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